Cognitive control in the intertrial interval: Evidence from EEG alpha power
Abstract This study used electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectrum analyses to characterize neural activity during the intertrial interval, a period during which online cognitive adjustments in response to errors or conflict are thought to occur. EEG alpha power was quantified as an inverse index of cerebral activity during the period between each response and the next stimulus in a Stroop task. Alpha power was significantly reduced following error responses compared to correct responses, indicating greater cerebral activity following errors. Reduced alpha power was also observed following Stroop conflict trials compared to no-conflict trials, suggesting that conflict engages processes of mental adjustment. Finally, hemispheric differences in alpha power during the intertrial interval supported the complementary roles of the left and right hemispheres in behavioral activation and inhibition.