Pharmacogenomic update on multiple sclerosis: a focus on actual and new therapeutic strategies
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disease of central nervous system comprising several subtypes. Pharmacological treatment involves only few drugs. Among these, interferon beta (IFN-β) and glatiramer acetate were the most used. Although evidence supports the efficacy of these agents in treating MS symptoms, actual studies allowed to introduce new innovative drugs in clinical practice. Applying pharmacogenetic approach to MS, IFN-β and several other immune pathways were abundantly investigated. Numerous reports identified some promising therapy markers but only few markers have emerged as clinically useful. This may be partially due to differences in clinical and methodological criteria in the studies. Indeed, responder and non-responder definitions lack standardized clinical definition. The goal of this review is to treat advances in research on the pharmacogenetic markers of MS drugs and to highlight possible correlations between type of responses and genetic profile, with regard to clinical and methodological discrepancies in the studies.