AM1-SM2 and PM3-SM3 parameterized SCF solvation models for free energies in aqueous solution
Two new continuum solvation models have been presented recently, and in this paper they are explained and reviewed in detail with further examples. Solvation Model 2 (AM1-SM2) is based on the Austin Model 1 and Solvation Model 3 (PM3-SM3) on the Parameterized Model 3 semiempirical Hamiltonian. In addition to the incorporation of phosphorus parameters, both of these new models address specific deficiencies in the original Solvation Model 1 (AM1-SM1), viz., (1) more accurate account is taken of the hydrophobic effect of hydrocarbons, (2) assignment of heavy-atom surface tensions is based on the presence or absence of bonded hydrogen atoms, and (3) the treatment of specific hydration-shell water molecules is more consistent. The new models offer considerably improved performance compared to AM1-SM1 for neutral molecules and essentially equivalent performance for ions. The solute charges within the Parameterized Model 3 Hamiltonian limit the utility of PM3-SM3 for compounds containing nitrogen and possibly phosphorus. For other systems both AM1-SM2 and PM3-SM3 give realistic results, but AM1-SM2 in general outperforms PM3-SM3. Key features of the models are discussed with respect to alternative approaches.