Genomeâvirome interactions: examining the role of common viral infections in complex disease
New technologies have widened our view of 'complex diseases': those with both genetic and environmental risk factors. In this Review, we explore recent genetic and virological evidence implicating host–virus interactions in three diseases: type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. The viruses implicated in these diseases cause mucosal infections that affect most of the population but are asymptomatic or mild in many hosts. These findings place a new emphasis on common viral infections as important environmental factors in the pathogenesis of complex diseases, and they compel the field to pursue a better understanding of host interactions with the human virome.