Suspension, emulsion, and dispersion polymerization: A methodological survey
A methodological description of heterogeneous polymerization processes, including suspension, emulsion, dispersion, and precipitation polymerization is presented. The discussion focuses on the initial state of the polymerization mixture, mechanism of particle formation, and the shape and size of polymer particles produced in different heterogeneous polymerization systems. The dependence of particle size and morphology on manufacturing parameters such as emulsifier, stabilizer, reactor design, and stirring speed is discussed. Special topics, including emulsifier-free (soapless) emulsion polymerization, seeded ponymerization, and the formation of core-shell particles are also briefly covered.