Contact angle hysteresis: a review of fundamentals and applications
Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon. It is omnipresent in nature and also plays a crucial role in various industrial processes. Despite its relevance, there is a lack of consensus on how to incorporate a description of contact angle hysteresis into physical models. To clarify this, starting from the basic definition of contact angle hysteresis, we introduce the formalism and models for implementing contact angle hysteresis into relevant physical phenomena. Furthermore, we explain the influence of the contact angle hysteresis in physical phenomena relevant for industrial applications such as sliding drops, coffee stain phenomenon (in general evaporative self-assembly), and curtain and wire coating techniques.