Diagnosis and management of acute myeloid leukemia in children and adolescents: recommendations from an international expert panel
Despite major improvements in outcome over the past decades, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a life-threatening malignancy in children, with current survival rates of ∼ 70%. State-of-the-art recommendations in adult AML have recently been published in this journal by Döhner et al. The primary goal of an international expert panel of the International BFM Study Group AML Committee was to set standards for the management, diagnosis, response assessment, and treatment in childhood AML. This paper aims to discuss differences between childhood and adult AML, and to highlight recommendations that are specific to children. The particular relevance of new diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers in pediatric AML is presented. The general management of pediatric AML, the management of specific pediatric AML cohorts (such as infants) or subtypes of the disease occurring in children (such as Down syndrome related AML), as well as new therapeutic approaches, and the role of supportive care are discussed.