Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Peptide Action and Resistance
10.1124/pr.55.1.2 Antimicrobial peptides have been isolated and characterized from tissues and organisms representing virtually every kingdom and phylum, ranging from prokaryotes to humans. Yet, recurrent structural and functional themes in mechanisms of action and resistance are observed among peptides of widely diverse source and composition. Biochemical distinctions among the peptides themselves, target versus host cells, and the microenvironments in which these counterparts convene, likely provide for varying degrees of selective toxicity among diverse antimicrobial peptide types. Moreover, many antimicrobial peptides employ sophisticated and dynamic mechanisms of action to effect rapid and potent activities consistent with their likely roles in antimicrobial host defense. In balance, successful microbial pathogens have evolved multifaceted and effective countermeasures to avoid exposure to and subvert mechanisms of antimicrobial peptides. A clearer recognition of these opposing themes will significantly advance our understanding of how antimicrobial peptides function in defense against infection. Furthermore, this understanding may provide new models and strategies for developing novel antimicrobial agents, that may also augment immunity, restore potency or amplify the mechanisms of conventional antibiotics, and minimize antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among pathogens. From these perspectives, the intention of this review is to illustrate the contemporary structural and functional themes among mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide action and resistance.