Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and leptin after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) imparts long-term weight loss, the mechanisms for which are not well understood. Changes in leptin and gastrointestinal (GI) hormones, including glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin, may contribute to the relative success of RYGB compared with conventional weight loss methods. This study evaluated changes in GI hormones and leptin post-RYGB. The study also evaluated whether GI hormones differed after a short-term dose of protein or fat. GLP-1, PYY, ghrelin, and leptin were assessed in 16 women before RYGB and up to 1 year after RYGB. Plasma was collected before and at several times after a short-term equicaloric dose of protein or fat. GLP-1 area under the curve (AUC) increased at week 6 and 1 year in the fat beverage (FAT-BEV) group compared with baseline. PYY AUC remained elevated at 1 year in the FAT-BEV group. Ghrelin AUC decreased at week 2, week 6, and 1 year in the protein beverage (PRO-BEV) group compared with baseline. Ghrelin AUC was lower in the PRO-BEV group compared with the FAT-BEV group at week 6. Fasted leptin decreased at all visits in both groups and was lower in the FAT-BEV group compared with the PRO-BEV group at 1 year. Changes from baseline were evident for all GI hormones and leptin; some differences were evident soon after surgery (ghrelin, leptin), whereas others were maintained long term (GLP-1, PYY, ghrelin, leptin). In response to a short-term stimulus, protein suppressed ghrelin and fat potently stimulated GLP-1 and PYY. Future work in this area is warranted.