Novel Methodology for Fabrication of Tissue-Engineered Tubular Constructs Using Magnetite Nanoparticles and Magnetic Force
Novel technologies for creating three-dimensional constructs with complex shapes would be highly useful in tissue engineering. In the present study, tubular structures were constructed using magnetic force. Magnetite nanoparticles in cationic liposomes were taken up by target cells. The magnetically labeled cells were seeded onto ultralow-attachment plates, and a magnet was placed under the wells. After 24 h of culture, the magnetically labeled cells formed a cell sheet. Subsequently, when a cylindrical magnet was rolled onto the cell sheet, the cell sheet was attracted to the magnet and formed a tube around it. The magnet was then removed, leaving behind a tubular structure. Two types of tissue were used to create tubular structures: urinary tissue, consisting of a monotypic urothelial cell layer; and vascular tissue, consisting of heterotypic layers of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. The present results suggest that this novel methodology using magnetite nanoparticles and magnetic force, which we have termed "magnetic force-based tissue engineering" (Mag-TE), is a promising approach to constructing tissue-engineered tubular structures.