LEISURE TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE FRAMINGHAM OFFSPRING STUDY: DESCRIPTION, SEASONAL VARIATION, AND RISK FACTOR CORRELATES
Dannenberg, A. L. (NHLBI, Bethesda, MD 20892), J. B. Keller, P. W. F. Wilson, and W. P. Castelll. Leisure time physical activity in the Framingham Offspring Study: description, seasonal variation, and risk factor correlates. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 129:76–88.Self-reported leisure time physical activity was analyzed for 1,598 men and 1,762 women aged 20–69 years in the Frarningham Offspring Cycle 2 exam In 1979–1983. Walking for pleasure was generally the most common physical activity for both sexes throughout the year. Substantial seasonal variation was noted for the most common activities: gardening, carpentry, lawn mowing, golf, and running for men; and gardening, swimming, health club exercise, dancing, and bicycling for women. Both sexes expended more kilocalorles in physical activities in summer than In winter (p < 0.001). Frequency of participation in activities sufficient to induce perspiration was associated with frequency of participation in at least one hour of conditioning (≥7.5 kilocal/minute) activities per week (p < 0.001). Based on age-adjusted mean levels, higher high density ilpoprotein cholesterol, lower heart rate, lower body mass index and fewer cigarettes smoked per day were consistently observed across four quartiles of Increasing physical activity levels (p < 0.01). Men who participated in at least one hour of conditioning activities per week had significantly different mean levels for these four risk factors than men who reported less than one hour of such activities per week (p < 0.001). Results substantiate previous reports of an inverse relation between physical activity levels and cardiovascular risk, and suggest seasonal variation in activity levels should be considered In future studies which explore the relation between physical activity and cardiovascular disease.