Vaccination for Invasive Canine Meningioma Induces in Situ Production of Antibodies Capable of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity
Malignant and atypical meningiomas are resistant to standard therapies and associated with poor prognosis. Despite progress in the treatment of other tumors with therapeutic vaccines, this approach has not been tested preclinically or clinically in these tumors. Spontaneous canine meningioma is a clinically meaningful but underutilized model for preclinical testing of novel strategies for aggressive human meningioma. We treated 11 meningioma-bearing dogs with surgery and vaccine immunotherapy consisting of autologous tumor cell lysate combined with toll-like receptor ligands. Therapy was well tolerated, and only one dog had tumor growth that required intervention, with a mean follow up of 585 days. Interferon gamma elaborating T cells were detected in the peripheral blood of two cases, but vaccine-induced tumor-reactive antibody responses developed in all dogs. Antibody responses were polyclonal, recognizing both intracellular and cell surface antigens, and heat shock protein 60 was identified as one common antigen. Tumor-reactive antibodies bound allogeneic canine and human meningiomas, demonstrating common antigens across breed and species. Histological analysis revealed robust infiltration of antibody-secreting plasma cells into the brain around the tumor in post-treatment compared to pre-treatment samples. Tumor-reactive antibodies were capable of inducing antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity to autologous and allogeneic tumor cells. These data demonstrate the feasibility and immunologic efficacy of vaccine immunotherapy for a large animal model of human meningioma and warrant further development towards human trials.