Isolation and Characterization of a Population of Stem-like Progenitor Cells From an Atypical Meningioma
The majority of meningiomas are benign tumors associated with favorable outcomes; however, the less common aggressive variants with unfavorable outcomes often recur and may be due to sub-populations of less-differentiated cells residing within the tumor. These sub-populations of tumor cells have tumor-initiating properties and may be isolated from heterogeneous tumors when sorted or cultured in defined medium. We report the isolation and characterization of a population of tumor-initiating cells derived from an atypical meningioma. We identify a tumor-initiating population from an atypical meningioma, termed meningioma-initiating cells (MICs). These MICs self-renew, differentiate, and can recapitulate the histological characteristics of the parental tumor when transplanted at 1,000 cells into the flank regions of athymic nude mice. Immunohistochemistry reveals stem-like protein expression patterns similar to neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) while genomic profiling verified the isolation of cancer cells (with defined meningioma chromosomal aberrations) from the bulk tumor. Microarray and pathway analysis identifies biochemical processes and gene networks related to aberrant cell cycle progression, particularly the loss of heterozygosity of tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A (p16INK4A), p14ARF, and CDKN2B (p15INK4B). Flow cytometric analysis revealed the expression of CD44 and activated leukocyte adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166); these may prove to be markers able to identify this cell type. The isolation and identification of a tumor-initiating cell population capable of forming meningiomas demonstrates a useful model for understanding meningioma development. This meningioma model may be used to study the cell hierarchy of meningioma tumorogenesis and provide increased understanding of malignant progression.