Relatedness, phylogeny, and evolution of the fungi
Recent advances in fungal systematics are reviewed in relation to our previous studies. The usefulness of the integrated analysis of genotypic (especially 18S rRNA gene sequence comparisons) and phenotypic (especially ultrastructural and chemotaxonomic data) characters has been emphasized for the major groups and selected taxa of the fungi, and the impact to fungal systematics and evolution is discussed. Our noteworthy studies and findings are: 1) polyphyly of the chytridiomycetes and zygomycetes, 2) phylogenetic origin of the entomophthoralean fungi includingBasidiobolus, 3) detection of a major new lineage “Archiascomycetes,” comprisingTaphrina, Protomyces andSaitoella, Schizosaccharomyces, andPneumocystis, within the Ascomycota, and its phylogenetic and evolutionary significance, 4) polyphyletic origins of species in the anamorphic genusGeosmithia, and 5) phylogenetic placement ofMixia osmundae, species correctly and incorrectly assigned to the genusTaphrina, and basidiomyceotus yeasts. The newest 18S rDNA sequence-based neighbor-joining trees of the Ascomycota are demonstrated.