Hispidin Analogue Davallialactone Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice
In this study the protective effects of davallialactone (1), isolated from Inonotus xeranticus, have been examined against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury. Mice received subcutaneous injection of 1 (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) for three days before CCl4 injection (1 mg/kg). Protection from liver injury by 1 was confirmed by the observation of decreased serum transaminases and diminished necrosis of liver tissue. Reduced hepatic injury was very similar to that observed with silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug used in this work for comparison. The groups treated with 1 had reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced serum malonyldialdehyde levels, and increased levels of liver Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, as compared to the CCl4 control group. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 in the liver tissue was increased and the activity of liver cytochrome P4502E1 was restored in the mice treated with 1. In addition, levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), numbers of macrophage, and cleaved caspase-3-positive hepatocytes were reduced in the groups treated with 1. These findings suggest that davallialactone has protective effects against CCl4-induced acute liver injury, and this protection is likely due to the suppression of ROS-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammatory response.