Effects of idursulfase enzyme replacement therapy for Mucopolysaccharidosis type II when started in early infancy: Comparison in two siblings.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a lysosomal storage disorder that is progressive and involves multiple organs and tissues. While enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase has been shown to improve many somatic features of the disease, some such as dysostosis multiplex and cardiac valve disease appear irreversible once established, and little is known about the preventative effects of ERT in pre-symptomatic patients. We report on two siblings with severe MPS II caused by an inversion mutation with recombination breakpoints located within the IDS gene and its adjacent pseudogene, IDS-2. The siblings initiated treatment with idursulfase at 3.0years (older brother) and 4months (younger brother) of age, and we compared their outcomes following 2years of treatment. At the start of treatment, the older brother showed typical features of MPS II, including intellectual disability. After 34months of ERT, his somatic disease was stable or improved, but he continued to decline cognitively. By comparison, after 32months of ERT his younger brother remained free from most of the somatic features that had already appeared in his brother at the same age, manifesting only exudative otitis media. Skeletal X-rays revealed characteristic signs of dysostosis multiplex in the older brother at the initiation of treatment that were unchanged two years later, whereas the younger brother showed only slight findings of dysostosis multiplex throughout the treatment period. The younger brother's developmental quotient trended downward over time to just below the normal range. These findings suggest that pre-symptomatic initiation of ERT may prevent or attenuate progression of the somatic features of MPS II. Follow-up in a larger number of patients is required to confirm the additive long-term benefits of ERT in pre-symptomatic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.