Bioremediation of oil‐contaminated soil in Kuwait. I. landfarming to remediate oil‐contaminated soil
During the Gulf Crisis, the State of Kuwait was subjected to hazards caused by the oil well fires. The discharged oil formed over 300 oil lakes, covering land areas in excess of 49 km2. In addition, deposits from aerial fallout covered massive areas of Kuwait's desert soil. It has been widely recognized that the heavily oil?contaminated soil must be remediated in order to avoid total damage to the land, water ecosystems, and/or the eventual release of hazardous particulate compositions to the atmosphere. A large number of diverse technological options were being considered for the remediation of contaminated soil. Bioremediation techniques involving enhanced landfarming was selected and evaluated at pilot scale The experiments were initiated in November 1992 at the Burgan oil field in which 16 landfarming plots of 120 m2 each were constructed. The study continued for 18 months, during which time petroleum hydrocarbon concentration, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and heavy metals were monitored regularly. The result obtained showed that landfarming treatment resulted in more than 80% reduction of oil contamination within 15 months. The treatment also resulted in a substantial reduction of the PAHs concentrations.