Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in an urban area of Togo: a WHO STEPS-wise approach in Lome, Togo.
To determine the prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in the general adult population of Lome. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Lome from October 2009 to January 2010, which focused on hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in 2 000 subjects 18 years and older. The World Health Organisation's STEPS-wise approach on non-communicable diseases was used. During the first session, blood pressure (BP) was measured on three successive occasions, one minute apart, and the mean was recorded. A second measurement session was done three weeks later in patients with BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg during the first session. Hypertension was defined as BP > 140/90 mmHg after the second session, or on antihypertensive treatment. The other risk factors were studied by clinical and blood analysis. We found 532 hypertensive patients out of a total of 2 000 subjects. The prevalence of hypertension was 26.6%. The mean age of hypertensive patients was 45 ± 10 years, ranging from 18 to 98 years. The prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors was: stress (43%), sedentary lifestyle (41%), hypercholesterolaemia (26%), obesity (25.2%), hypertriglyceridaemia (21%), smoking (9.3%), alcohol use (11%) and diabetes (7.3%). The prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in the population of Lome is high. These findings should draw the attention of authorities to define a national policy to combat hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors.