Regeneration of salvia ( <i>Salvia officinalis</i> L.) via induction of meristematic callus
Nodular meristematic callus was induced on the basal cut surface of apical shoot explants of salvia cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.5, 13.5, or 22.5 μM thidiazuron (TDZ). Cultures were incubated in the dark for 1 wk and then transferred to light conditions for 4 wk. A higher percentage of explants developing callus was observed on medium containing either 4.5 or 13.5 μM TDZ, although explants on 4.5 μM developed larger calluses. The callus was maintained on medium containing 4.5 μM TDZ and 0.45 mM ascorbic acid. Shoot differentiation, after each of three successive maintenance passages, was induced from callus grown on medium containing either 4.4 or 8.8 μM benzyladenine (BA). A greater number of shoots were harvested from callus differentiated on BA (4.4 or 8.8 μM) medium with 0.45 mM ascorbic acid added. Shoots developed roots on MS medium supplemented with 4.9 μM of indole-3-butyric acid. The addition of ascorbic acid to the shoot differentiation medium enhanced rooting, number of roots per shoot, and survival rate. Approximately 75% in vitro plantlets were acclimatized to ex vitro conditions. Histological investigations confirmed both adventitious meristem initiation during the callus induction phase, and subsequent organogenic shoot development on the differentiation medium. The novel protocol for the meristematic callus induction and plant regeneration in this study may be useful for biotechnological applications for salvia improvement via genetic transformation or mutagenesis and in vitro propagation approaches.