Interaction of rhizobacteria with leafy spurge (<i>Euphorbia esula</i> L.) callus tissue cells
The interaction of two rhizobacterial isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate LS 102 and Flavobacterium balustinum isolate LS 105, with leafy spurge cells at the cellular level was studied using scanning and electron microscopy. Leafy spurge callus tissue inoculated with either isolate showed considerable changes compared to non-inoculated tissue. The attachment of rhizobacteria to cell surfaces was associated with the elaboration of fibrillar material which may anchor bacteria to surfaces and contribute to mediation of the phytotoxic effect caused by rhizobacteria. At the ultracellular level, inoculated callus tissue showed numerous cell alterations including esiculation and convolution of the plasmalemma, cell wall degradation and disorganization of the cytoplasm, similar to those detected in the whole plant. It is concluded that callus tissue may provide an excellent working model to investigate the mode and/or mechanism of action of potential biocontrol agents on their host plants.