<i>Organogenic callus</i> as the target for plant regeneration and transformation via <i>Agrobacterium</i> in soybean (<i>Glycine max</i> (L.) Merr.)
A regeneration and transformation system has been developed using organogenic calluses derived from soybean axillary nodes as the starting explants. Leaf-node or cotyledonary-node explants were prepared from 7 to 8-d-old seedlings. Callus was induced on medium containing either Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts or modified Finer and Nagasawa (FNL) salts and B5 vitamins with various concentrations of benzylamino purine (BA) and thidiazuron (TDZ). The combination of BA and TDZ had a synergistic effect on callus induction. Shoot differentiation from the callus occurred once the callus was transferred to medium containing a low concentration of BA. Subsequently, shoots were elongated on medium containing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin riboside, and gibberellic acid (GA). Plant regeneration from callus occurred 90 ∼ 120 d after the callus was cultured on shoot induction medium. Both the primary callus and the proliferated callus were used as explants for Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. The calluses were inoculated with A. tumefaciens harboring a binary vector with the bar gene as the selectable marker gene and the gus INT gene for GUS expression. Usually 60–100% of the callus showed transient GUS expression 5 d after inoculation. Infected calluses were then selected on media amended with various concentrations of glufosinate. Transgenic soybean plants have been regenerated and established in the greenhouse. GUS expression was exhibited in various tissues and plant organs, including leaf, stem, and roots. Southern and T 1 plant segregation analysis of transgenic events showed that transgenes were integrated into the soybean genome with a copy number ranging from 1–5 copies.