Shoot regeneration of young leaf explants from basil (<i>Ocimum basilicum</i> L.)
An efficient plant regeneration protocol was successfully developed for basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Explants from 1 mo. old seedlings yielded the highest frequency of 85% regeneration with an average of 5.1 shoots per explant. The regeneration protocol was performed on three basil varieties (Sweet Dani; methylcinnamate; Green Purple Ruffles). Callus and shoot induction was initiated on Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with thidiazuron (16.8 μ M ) for approximately 30 d. Shoot induction and development were achieved by refreshing the induction medium after 14 d. The most morphogenetically responsive explants were from the first fully expanded true leaves of greenhouse-grown basil seedlings. All developing bud tissue demonstrated temporary anthocyanin expression; however, anthocyanin expression in Green Purple Ruffles remained stable until maturity. Developing shoots were rooted in the dark on media with thidiazuron removed. Within 20 d, rooted plantlets were transferred and acclimatized under greenhouse conditions where they developed normal morphological characteristics. This is the first report of a successful in vitro regeneration system for basil through primary callus.