Defense response mechanisms of ginseng callus cultures induced by <i>Yersinia pseudotuberculosis</i> , a human pathogen
The effect of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis , the bacterial pathogen affecting humans and animals, on growth of ginseng ( Panax ginseng C.A. Mey) cell cultures was studied. The bacteria strongly induced the expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and β-1,3-glucanase, the proteins encoded by the defense-related genes of ginseng and inhibited the normal ginseng callus growth but did not affect the resistant cell cultures. The thermostable and thermolabile protein toxins of these bacteria are lethal to mice when induced parentherally, and they also induced the expression of the defense-related genes in ginseng callus cultures. At the same time, the ginseng cells completely suppressed the bacterial cell growth. These data suggest that the ginseng cells recognized the yersinia and developed the immune response to this pathogen. The interaction between the ginseng cells and Y. pseudotuberculosis is similar to the hypersensitive response of plants to plant pathogens.