Primary kaposiform hemangioendothelioma of a long bone: Two cases in unusual locations with long-term follow up
Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a rare vascular neoplasm of low malignant potential that mainly affects infants and adolescents. The tumor almost exclusively occurs in somatic soft tissue or the retroperitoneum. We report herein two cases of primary KHE occurring in a long bone without cutaneous changes with long-term follow up in young patients. The patients were a 9-year-old girl and 5-year-old boy presenting with lytic lesions of the femur and humerus, respectively, without cutaneous lesions. Histologically, the neoplasms were comprised of nodules of spindle- to oval-shaped cells growing in an infiltrative fashion. The neoplastic cells formed poorly canalized or slit-like blood vessels alternating with solid spindle areas. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor cells expressed CD31, CD34 and Fli1, but not HHV8, LNA-1 or GLUT1. D2-40 stained the neoplastic spindle cells and lymphatic channels adjacent to vascular lobules. The girl remains well with 15 years and 6 months follow up after a second complete excision. The boy has no signs of recurrence or metastasis nearly 5 years after local complete excision. To our best knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature of primary long bone occurrences of KHE without cutaneous changes with long-term follow up.