EZ-IO(®) intraosseous device implementation in a pre-hospital emergency service: A prospective study and review of the literature.
INTRODUCTION: Intraosseous access is increasingly recognised as an effective alternative vascular access to peripheral venous access. We aimed to prospectively study the patients receiving prehospital intraosseous access with the EZ-IO(®), and to compare our results with those of the available literature. METHODS: Every patient who required an intraosseous access with the EZ-IO from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st, 2011 was included. The main data collected were: age, sex, indication for intraosseous access, localisation of insertion, success rate, drugs and fluids administered, and complications. All published studies concerning the EZ-IO device were systematically searched and reviewed for comparison. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients representing 60 EZ-IO procedures were included. Mean age was 47 years (range 0.5-91), and the success rate was 90%. The main indications were cardiorespiratory arrest (74%), major trauma (12%), and shock (5%). The anterior tibia was the main route. The main drugs administered were adrenaline (epinephrine), atropine and amiodarone. No complications were reported. We identified 30 heterogeneous studies representing 1603 EZ-IO insertions. The patients' characteristics and success rate were similar to our study. Complications were reported in 13 cases (1.3%). CONCLUSION: The EZ-IO provides an effective way to achieve vascular access in the pre-hospital setting. Our results were similar to the cumulative results of all studies involving the use of the EZ-IO, and that can be used for comparison for further studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.