The motion-induced shift in the perceived location of a grating also shifts its aftereffect.
Motion can bias the perceived location of a stationary stimulus (Whitney & Cavanagh, 2000), but whether this occurs at a high level of representation or at early, retinotopic stages of visual processing remains an open question. As coding of orientation emerges early in visual processing, we tested whether motion could influence the spatial location at which orientation adaptation is seen. Specifically, we examined whether the tilt aftereffect (TAE) depends on the perceived or the retinal location of the adapting stimulus, or both. We used the flash-drag effect (FDE) to produce a shift in the perceived position of the adaptor away from its retinal location. Subjects viewed a patterned disk that oscillated clockwise and counterclockwise while adapting to a small disk containing a tilted linear grating that was flashed briefly at the moment of the rotation reversals. The FDE biased the perceived location of the grating in the direction of the disk's motion immediately following the flash, allowing dissociation between the retinal and perceived location of the adaptor. Brief test gratings were subsequently presented at one of three locations-the retinal location of the adaptor, its perceived location, or an equidistant control location (antiperceived location). Measurements of the TAE at each location demonstrated that the TAE was strongest at the retinal location, and was larger at the perceived compared to the antiperceived location. This indicates a skew in the spatial tuning of the TAE consistent with the FDE. Together, our findings suggest that motion can bias the location of low-level adaptation.