Effects of TiCl4 Treatment of Nanoporous TiO2 Films on Morphology, Light Harvesting, and Charge-Carrier Dynamics in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
We report on the effects of treating TiO2 nanocrystalline films with different concentrations of TiCl4 (5?500 mM) on the film morphology, charge-carrier dynamics, and performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. Transport and recombination in the TiCl4-treated films were studied by frequency-resolved modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopies. These studies showed that, at a low TiCl4 concentration (5 mM), the electron diffusion coefficient in the annealed film increased. At intermediate TiCl4 concentrations (15?50 mM), the surface area of the films increased, resulting in an increase of light harvesting and overall power conversion efficiency. At a high TiCl4 concentration (500 mM), light scattering in the film in the long wavelength region of the visible spectrum was enhanced, but the averaged pore size of the film became narrower, resulting in slower transport and loss of cell performance.