What Makes Community Forest Management Successful: A Meta-Study From Community Forests Throughout the World
Thirty-one articles on community forestry, encompassing 69 case studies worldwide, were reviewed for systematic data synthesis and hypothesis testing. The meta-study identifies 43 independent variables ranging from internal attributes of the community and resources to external factors. Variables with significant influence on the success of community forestry are tenure security, clear ownership, congruence between biophysical and socioeconomic boundaries of the resources, effective enforcement of rules and regulations, monitoring, sanctioning, strong leadership with capable local organization, expectation of benefits, common interests among community members, and local authority. These variables illustrate community?forest relationships, community ability to organize and continue collective activities, and protection of benefits, rights, and responsibilities in common resource management.