Interactions between aquaculture and fisheries
Aquaculture is increasingly interacting with fisheries from a socio-economic perspective at the level of the global food market. In addition, since 36% of landings from fisheries are used for the production of fishmeal and fish oil, which are essential feed elements for many aquaculture species, another source of interaction is at the level of the aqua feed market. The relevance of the interactions between the two sectors is becoming more evident as the process of transition from fishing to farming has reached a pivotal point, with almost 50% of the fish food supply now coming from aquaculture. The analyses on aquaculture and fisheries interactions often result in diverging views. This paper reviews the main positions in the recent scientific literature, structuring the discussion along the following themes: food market interactions; comparison of resources use by means of Life Cycle Assessment; use of fishmeal and fish oil and aqua feed markets; impacts on small pelagic fish stocks; food security; technical substitution of fishmeal and fish oil with alternative ingredients. The review is not aimed at taking a definitive position in respect of these complex issues but rather at summarising the different scientific contributions and indicating possible areas for further research. Research on fisheries and aquaculture interactions is considered beneficial in terms of policy support especially now that the reform of European Common Fishery Policy is assigning greater relevance to the growth of aquaculture and to its role in terms of socio-economic development for coastal and rural communities. In a more global perspective, the understanding of interactions between aquaculture and fisheries is important to evaluate the respective contributions to food security goals and the implications in terms of environmental sustainability and resource use efficiency. âº We examine interactions between aquaculture and fisheries. âº In sea food markets farmed fish is substituting captured fish. âº Aquaculture is more input intensive but less impacting on biotic resources. âº There are diverging views on the sustainability of using small pelagic in feed.