A novel ab initio identification system of transcriptional regulation motifs in genome DNA sequences based on direct comparison scheme of signal/noise distributions
A novel ab initio parameter-tuning-free system to identify transcriptional factor (TF) binding motifs (TFBMs) in genome DNA sequences was developed. It is based on the comparison of two types of frequency distributions with respect to the TFBM candidates in the target DNA sequences and the non-candidates in the background sequence, with the latter generated by utilizing the intergenic sequences. For benchmark tests, we used DNA sequence datasets extracted by ChIP-on-chip and ChIP-seq techniques and identified 65 yeast and four mammalian TFBMs, with the latter including gaps. The accuracy of our system was compared with those of other available programs (i.e. MEME, Weeder, BioProspector, MDscan and DME) and was the best among them, even without tuning of the parameter set for each TFBM and pre-treatment/editing of the target DNA sequences. Moreover, with respect to some TFs for which the identified motifs are inconsistent with those in the references, our results were revealed to be correct, by comparing them with other existing experimental data. Thus, our identification system does not need any other biological information except for gene positions, and is also expected to be applicable to genome DNA sequences to identify unknown TFBMs as well as known ones.