National and Local Medication Error Reporting Systems-A Survey of Practices in 16 Countries.
OBJECTIVES: To explore the existence and characteristics of national and local medication error reporting (MER) systems and to describe national medication safety experts' perceptions of a good and effective MER system and barriers to reporting. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 32 medication safety experts were identified through member organizations of the International Pharmaceutical Federation in 88 countries and other professional organizations in 3 additional countries. These experts were invited to participate in an online survey. RESULTS: Sixteen national medication safety experts from different countries participated in the study (response rate, 50%). A national (n = 5) or local (n = 6) MER system existed in 11 of these countries. In 5 countries, no MER system existed. The most common features of the MER systems were confidentiality of the reported information and providing feedback to those involved in reporting. Most experts perceived that a good and effective MER system was characterized by the opportunity to learn from errors by those involved in reporting, having a nonpunitive approach to reporting, and ease of use. They also perceived that a blame culture, lack of time, training, and coordination of reporting were the main barriers to reporting. CONCLUSIONS: Blame culture, a lack of time, training and coordination of reporting continue to be the major barriers to reporting. Learning from errors and having a nonpunitive approach to reporting were thought to be the most critical features of a MER system. Difficulties in identifying national medication safety experts indicates a need for promoting international networking of medication safety experts and bodies for sharing information and learning from others.