Antihypertensive effects of bioactive tripeptides-a random effects meta-analysis.
A meta-analysis of possible antihypertensive effects of small doses of bioactive tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline and valine-proline-proline in commercial milk products or tablets was carried out. A random effects model was used on 19 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical intervention trials (published 1996-October 2010) consisting of about 1500 prehypertensive or mildly hypertensive subjects.The overall blood pressure lowering for systolic blood pressure was -4.0 mmHg (95% CI -5.9 to -2.1 mmHg, P < 0.001) and for diastolic blood pressure -1.9 mmHg (95% CI -3.1 to -0.8 mmHg, P < 0.001). However, a positive effect was not reported in all the studies. The results suggest that rather small daily doses of the lactotripeptides in different functional food products may offer a valuable option as a non-pharmacological treatment of prehypertension or mild hypertension as part of life-style advice.