Flow cytometric detection of intracellular myeloperoxidase, CD3 and CD79a Interaction between monoclonal antibody clones, fluorochromes and sample preparation protocols
Detection of intracellular myeloperoxidase (MPO), CD79a and CD3 has become the most specific tool for the assignment of myeloid, B- and T-lymphoid lineages in acute leukemias. In order to establish the best combination of monoclonal antibody reagent and sample preparation technique for the intracellular detection of these three markers, we compared six different cell fixation–permeabilization kits (Cytofix/Cytoperm™, Fix and Perm™, Intraprep™, Intrastain™, Permeacyte™ and Permeafix™) using 12 fluorochrome conjugates derived from seven monoclonal antibody (mAb) clones. A total of 21 samples corresponding to normal peripheral blood ( n =4), normal bone marrow ( n =3), acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML, n =6), precursor B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n =6) and T-ALL ( n =2) cases, were analysed in two centers. All fixation/permeabilization methods resulted in decreased side scatter and mostly increased forward scatter as compared to erythrocyte-lyse-washed and 1% paraformaldehyde fixed samples. The autofluorescence levels of the leukocyte populations was only significantly increased with use of the Cytofix/Cytoperm™ kit and mildly with the other techniques. In addition, non-specific staining increased significantly for combinations of any anti-MPO mAb with the Cytofix/Cytoperm™ kit and for the CD3 clone S4.1 combined with any intracellular method. Anti-MPO antibodies gave a stronger fluorescence signal when conjugated to PE than when coupled to FITC. In conclusion, MPO-7-PE, UCHT-1-PE (CD3) and any HM57-PE conjugate (CD79a) in combination with Fix and Perm™, Intraprep™, Intrastain™ or Permeafix™, provided specific staining of the respective markers in sufficient intensities. Thus, combined selection of fixation/permeabilization kits and monoclonal antibody reagents against CD3, CD79a and MPO is required for obtaining optimal cytoplasmic detection of these antigens.