Sample size determination: a review
This paper is concerned with methods of sample size determination. The approach is to cover a small number of simple problems, such as estimating the mean of a normal distribution or the slope in a regression equation, and to present some key techniques. The methods covered are in two groups: frequentist and Bayesian. Frequentist methods specify a null and alternative hypothesis for the parameter of interest and then find the sample size by controlling both size and power. These methods often need to use prior information but cannot allow for the uncertainty that is associated with it. By contrast, the Bayesian approach offers a wide variety of techniques, all of which offer the ability to deal with uncertainty associated with prior information.