Macromolecular architectures by living and controlled/living polymerizations
The discovery of living anionic polymerization by Szwarc 50 years ago opened the way to the synthesis of model polymers. This ground-breaking discovery inspired many researchers to develop controlled/living routes for a plethora of monomers including those not compatible with anionic polymerization. These methods and their combinations serve as an arsenal for the synthesis of well-defined polymeric materials with predetermined properties and a rich variety of applications. A few representative examples of living and controlled/living methodologies for the synthesis of polymers with different macromolecular architectures are presented in this review.