Dissociations Between Categorization and Recognition in Amnesic and Normal Individuals: An Exemplar-Based Interpretation
In recent work, the finding of dissociations between categorization and recognition in amnesic and normal individuals has been taken as evidence of multiple memory systems mediating these tasks. The present research provides support for the alternative idea that these dissociations can be interpreted in terms of a single-system exemplar-memory model that makes allowance for parameter differences across groups. In one experiment, a parameter change in memory sensitivity was induced by testing classification and recognition at varying delays; the results closely matched the ones observed by Knowlton and Squire (1993) for normal and amnesic participants. The exemplar model also yielded good quantitative predictions of the categorization-recognition dissociation. A second analysis demonstrated that dissociations between early versus late probabilistic classification learning and memory sensitivity were also well predicted by the single-system exemplar model. Limitations of the exemplar interpretation and future research directions are also discussed.