The -labelling of trees
An L(2,1)-labelling of a graph G is an assignment of nonnegative integers to the vertices of G such that adjacent vertices have numbers at least 2 apart, and vertices at distance 2 have distinct numbers. The L(2,1)-labelling number Î»(G) of G is the minimum range of labels over all such labellings. It was shown by Griggs and Yeh [Labelling graphs with a condition at distance 2, SIAM J. Discrete Math. 5 (1992) 586–595] that every tree T has Î+1â©½Î»(T)â©½Î+2. This paper provides a sufficient condition for Î»(T)=Î+1. Namely, we prove that if a tree T contains no two vertices of maximum degree at distance either 1, 2, or 4, then Î»(T)=Î+1. Examples of trees T with two vertices of maximum degree at distance 4 such that Î»(T)=Î+2 are constructed.