Geochemical evidence from bio-apatite for multiple oceanic anoxic events during Permian–Triassic transition and the link with end-Permian extinction and recovery
A detailed, 20 myr redox history of Permian to Triassic oceans (Changhsingian to Carnian stages) has been constructed using Ce-anomaly (Î©Ce) and Th/U ratios from conodont albid crown apatite material. The results show that the well-established phenomenon of intense ocean anoxia (coincident with the end-Permian mass extinction) is faithfully recorded in conodont Î©Ce and Th/U data. Extending this conodont redox record shows that end-Permian anoxia persisted possibly into the earliest Dienerian Stage and that two intense oceanic anoxic events also occurred later in the Early Triassic (earliest Smithian–earliest Spathian, and middle Spathian), followed by a weaker manifestation of anoxia in the Anisian Stage, seen in Î©Ce data. Marine benthic radiation, following the end-Permian mass extinction, began after the Smithian–earliest Spathian anoxic event suggesting a suppression of evolution prior to this due to these inimical conditions. The failure of the middle Spathian anoxic event to retard the evolutionary rebound implies shallow shelf seas remained well ventilated at this time even if the oceans did not. Other attributes of the Early Triassic record also closely coincide with redox fluctuations: phases of anoxia intensification saw the proliferation of microbial carbonates and major negative carbon isotope swings that can be attributed to chemocline shallowing causing alkalinity pulses and enrichment in light, remineralised carbon and/or indicate a trigger meachnaims related to increased fluxes of light C from Siberian volcanic sources. âº Shows the value of Î©Ce and Th/U data from conodont crown tissue as a reliable proxy for ocean redox. âº First geochemical study to look at end-Permian anoxia in an extended temporal context. âº Reveals 3 oceanic anoxic events in latest Permian–Early Triassic interval. âº Shows the delayed Early Triassic radiation is not simply related to ocean anoxia.