An increasingly difficult problem is the challenge to provide potable water for the world's expanding population. Electromagnetic methods originally used to locate oil can be used to locate shallow aquifers. Typically, electromagnetic studies track salinity of aquifers, but similar technology could be applied to detect shallow new aquifers. The potential for detecting aquifers also applies to mapping underground river systems as well as providing more insight to understanding the local hydrology in certain areas. Controlled-source electromagnetic studies of shallow aquifers are relatively untested compared to studies to detect oil reservoirs with time-domain electromagnetics.