Rate dependent finite strain constitutive model of polyurea
Continuous loading and unloading experiments are performed at different strain rates to characterize the large deformation behavior of polyurea under compressive loading. In addition, uniaxial compression tests are carried out with multistep strain history profiles. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the concept of equilibrium path may not be applied to polyurea. This finding implies that viscoelastic constitutive models of the Zener type are no suitable for the modeling of the rate dependent behavior of polyurea. A new constitutive model is developed based on a rheological model composed of two Maxwell elements. The soft rubbery response is represented by a Gent spring while nonlinear viscous evolution equations are proposed to describe the time-dependent material response. The eight material model parameters are identified for polyurea and used to predict the experimentally-measured stress–strain curves for various loading and unloading histories. The model provides a good prediction of the response under monotonic loading over wide range of strain rates, while it overestimates the stiffness during unloading. Furthermore, the model predictions of the material relaxation and viscous dissipation during a loading–unloading cycle agree well with the experiments.