Growth factor interactions in bone regeneration.
Bone regeneration is a complex process regulated by a large number of bioactive molecules. Many growth factors and cytokines involved in the natural process of bone healing have been identified and tested as potential therapeutic candidates to enhance the regeneration process. Although many of these studies show an enhancement of the bone regeneration process by a single drug therapy, in vivo bone regeneration is the result of a complex interplay between the applied growth factor and various endogenous produced growth factors. To investigate these growth factor interactions, various studies have investigated the effect of growth factor combinations on bone regeneration. This review provides an overview of the growth factor and cytokine combinations tested in translational bone regeneration studies and shows that their interaction may result in an enhancement or inhibition of bone formation.