Assessment of the profiling microRNA expression of differentiated and dedifferentiated human adult articular chondrocytes.
MicroRNA has an important role in regulating gene expression during cell differentiation. In this study we identified the expression pattern of microRNA in the differentiated and dedifferentiated chondrocytes. Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer. RNA was isolated from the differentiated chondrocytes (collected after isolation) and the fifth-passage (dedifferentiated) chondrocytes, and subjected to gene expression analysis using microRNA and cDNA microarray analysis. Real-time RT-PCR was also performed to confirm the differentially expressed genes. Furthermore, we integrated microRNA and cDNA microarray data together with computational approaches, such as microRNA gene target prediction algorithms, to reveal the role of microRNAs involved in chondrocyte homeostasis. The results showed a dramatic change in expression of microRNA between the two cell types. Thirteen up-regulated and 12 down-regulated microRNAs were detected in differentiated chondroctes. We also revealed microRNA-gene target pairs potentially involved in dedifferentiation process. Our results revealed novel findings of differential expression of microRNA in dedifferentiation, and microRNA could have an important role in the maintenance of chondrocytes homeostasis. MicroRNA may be a target for cartilage tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.