Reading e-books on a near-to-eye display: Comparison between a small-sized multimedia display and a hard copy
Eighty-seven participants read an e-book either from a near-to-eye display, a small-size display or a hard copy. Eyestrain, visually induced motion sickness, changes in visual functioning, user experience, and the essential optical parameters of the reading equipment were evaluated. The results indicate that reading from a hard copy was the most comfortable experience. All near-to-eye displays induced eyestrain and sickness symptoms, but the magnitude of these symptoms varied according to the device. The adverse symptoms were related to problems with the display optics and design, text layout, headset fit, use context, and individual differences.