Bayesian fMRI time series analysis with spatial priors
We describe a Bayesian estimation and inference procedure for fMRI time series based on the use of General Linear Models (GLMs). Importantly, we use a spatial prior on regression coefficients which embodies our prior knowledge that evoked responses are spatially contiguous and locally homogeneous. Further, using a computationally efficient Variational Bayes framework, we are able to let the data determine the optimal amount of smoothing. We assume an arbitrary order Auto-Regressive (AR) model for the errors. Our model generalizes earlier work on voxel-wise estimation of GLM-AR models and inference in GLMs using Posterior Probability Maps (PPMs). Results are shown on simulated data and on data from an event-related fMRI experiment.