Families of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Review and Recommendations for Future Research
This review integrates and critically evaluates what is known about family characteristics associated with childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Evidence suggests that the presence of ADHD in children is associated to varying degrees with disturbances in family and marital functioning, disrupted parent–child relationships, specific patterns of parental cognitions about child behavior and reduced parenting self-efficacy, and increased levels of parenting stress and parental psychopathology, particularly when ADHD is comorbid with conduct problems. However, the review reveals that little is known about the developmental mechanisms that underlie these associations, or the pathways through which child and family characteristics transact to exert their influences over time. In addition, the influence of factors such as gender, culture, and ADHD subtype on the association between ADHD and family factors remains largely unknown. We conclude with recommendations regarding the necessity for research that will inform a developmental psychopathology perspective of ADHD.