Cross-national prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Little is known about the epidemiology of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To estimate the prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. An ADHD screen was administered to respondents aged 18-44 years in ten countries in the Americas, Europe and the Middle East (n=11422). Masked clinical reappraisal interviews were administered to 154 US respondents to calibrate the screen. Multiple imputation was used to estimate prevalence and correlates based on the assumption of cross-national calibration comparability. Estimates of ADHD prevalence averaged 3.4% (range 1.2-7.3%), with lower prevalence in lower-income countries (1.9%) compared with higher-income countries (4.2%). Adult ADHD often co-occurs with other DSM-IV disorders and is associated with considerable role disability. Few cases are treated for ADHD, but in many cases treatment is given for comorbid disorders. Adult ADHD should be considered more seriously in future epidemiological and clinical studies than is currently the case.