Transformational and Coercive Strategies for Planned Organizational Change: Beyond the O.D. Model
10.1177/017084068800900302 This paper challenges the universality of O.D. theory, arguing that it presents an incomplete model of organizational change. Two contrasting 'theories' of organization al change are compared and evaluated (the incremental and transformational theses) and also two contrasting methods of change: participation and coercion. All four approaches are seen as legitimate components of a differentiated contingency model of change. The model has implications for the choice of strategies for managing organizational change in differing circumstances and for the training of change agents.