Viper: Virtual pipelines for enhanced reliability
The reliability of future processors is threatened by decreasing transistor robustness. Current architectures focus on delivering high performance at low cost; lifetime device reliability is a secondary concern. As the rate of permanent hardware faults increases, robustness will become a first class constraint for even low-cost systems. Current research into reliable architectures has focused on ad-hoc solutions to improve designs without altering their centralized control logic. Unfortunately, this centralized control presents a single point of failure, which limits long-term robustness.To address this issue, we introduce Viper, an architecture built from a redundant collection offine-grained hardware components. Instructions are perceived as customers that require a sequence of services in order to properly execute. The hardware components vie to perform what services they can, dynamically forming virtual pipelines that avoid defective hardware. This is done using distributed control logic, which avoids a single point offailure by construction. Viper can tolerate a high number of permanent faults due to its inherent redundancy. As fault counts increase, its performance degrades more gracefully than traditional centralized-logic architectures. We estimate that fault rates higher than one permanentfaults per 12 million transistors, on average, cause the throughput of a classic CMP design to fall below that of a Viper design of similar size.