Early and late complications of double pigtail ureteral stent.
To analyze the early and late complications of indwelling ureteral stents in a series of 146 patients with nephroureteral lithiasis. 146 patients with obstructing nephrolitiasis were treated for urinary diversion with double pigtail ureteral stent before extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and following ureterorenoscopic treatment of lithiasis. All patients were scheduled for stent removal or replacement at specific 3-month intervals until stone-free status was achieved. Early complications during the first 4 weeks after stent insertion were stent discomfort (37.6%), irritative bladder symptoms (18.8%), hematuria (18.1%), bacteriuria (15.2%), fever >104 degrees F (12.3%) and flank pain (25.3%); late complications included hydronephrosis (5.7%), and stent migration (9.5%), encrustation (21.6%), fragmentation (1.9%) and breakage (1.3%). Ureteral stents have proven to be an invaluable tool for endourologists. Morbidity is minimal for up to three months but longer indwelling times are associated with an increasing frequency of incrustation, infections, secondary stone formation and obstruction of the stented tract. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel