Controlling the Propagation of X-Ray Waves inside a Heteroepitaxial Crystal Containing Quantum Dots Using Berry's Phase
We study a new aspect of the Berry-phase effect as the collaborative x-ray translation by a crystal with undulated deformation. The macroscopic translation was observed around the interface of a heteroepitaxial crystal deformed by quantum dots of 4.1 germanium monolayers on a silicon substrate. The quantum dots formed a large local gradient of deformation at the interface, which triggered the x-ray translation into two directions. This effect provides a new probe for investigating the interfacial strain, and leads to a single-crystal beam splitter with parallel exit beams.